To exacerbate the situation, the security forces of the government engaged in conduct in violation of the rights of the Ogonis by attacking, burning and destroying several Ogoni villages and homes. The obligation to respect requires that a State when discharging public powers, refrain from itself interfering with the existing enjoyment of a right by rights-holders. Regardless of the availability of resources however, the CESCR has emphasized that States must use all of its available resources to prioritize the fulfilment of the minimum core content Obligations of each right. The CESCR has affirmed that in meeting the core content of a right, the resource constraints of that particular State may be taken into account, keeping in mind that resources include those made available by international cooperation and assistance. The core content of human rights is not a stagnant concept, and continues to evolve with scientific and technological advances and as societies change. Article 14 of ICESCR, for example, states explicitly that primary education must be, at the very least, free and compulsory for all.

The principles of non-discrimination and equality are applicable to all human rights, including economic, social and cultural rights. In addition to the anti-discrimination contained in the ICESCR and other instruments protecting the rights of specific groups and individuals, it is important to give regard to the guarantee of equal protection of the law under international human rights law. Thus, in terms of political and economic systems the Covenant is neutral and its principles cannot accurately be described as being predicated https://www.wave-accounting.net/ exclusively upon the need for, or the desirability of a socialist or a capitalist system, or a mixed, centrally planned, or laisser-faire economy, or upon any other particular approach. The Committee also notes the relevance in this regard of other human rights and in particular the right to development. Among the measures which might be considered appropriate, in addition to legislation, is the provision of judicial remedies with respect to rights which may, in accordance with the national legal system, be considered justiciable.

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There is a strong presumption of impermissibility of any retrogressive measures taken in relation to the right to education, as well as other rights enunciated in the Covenant. As with all other rights in the Covenant, there is a strong presumption that retrogressive measures taken in relation to the right to health are not permissible.


The initiative to draft a Universal Declaration of Human Obligations is not only a way of balancing freedom with responsibility, but also a means of reconciling ideologies and political views that were deemed antagonistic in the past. The basic premise, then, should be that humans deserve the greatest possible amount of freedom, but also should develop their sense of responsibility to its fullest in order to correctly administer their freedom. However, even if the applicable law provides otherwise, the needs of the creditor and the resources of the debtor shall be taken into account in determining the amount of maintenance. The extent of the obligation of a maintenance debtor, where a public body seeks reimbursement of benefits provided for a creditor. If the creditor is unable, by virtue of the laws referred to in Articles 4 and 5, to obtain maintenance from the debtor, the internal law of the authority seised shall apply.

Obligation: Legal Definition and Examples in Finance

If we have a right to work under just and favorable conditions to provide a decent standard of living for ourselves and our families, we also have the obligation to perform to the best of our capacities. Public employees in particular have the obligation to provide the best possible service. Sadly, this relationship between freedom and responsibility has not always been clearly understood. Some ideologies have placed greater importance on the concept of individual freedom, while others on the unquestioning commitment to the social group. Any State may, at the time of signature, ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, declare that this Convention shall extend to all the territories for the international relations of which it is responsible, or to one or more of them.

30. April 2020